Tirk yan jî Rom (bi tirkî: Türkler) komekî etnikî ji gelên tirkî ne ku bi piranî li Anatolyayê,[72] rojhilata Trakyayê û li Bakurê Kîprosê dijîn.[73] Tirk bi eslê xwe ji Asyaya Navîn in û zimanê wan bi tirknîjadên din wekî azerî, tirkmen, Teterên Krîmê, ûzbêk, ûygur, yaqût û hwd ve girêdayî ye.[74]

Tirk
Türkler
Map of the Turkish Diaspora in the World.svg
Gelhe tevahî
c. 80 mîlyon
 Tirkiye 58,000,000 - 62,000,000[1][2]
 Kîpros 315,000[3]
Herêmên ku lê şêniyên sereke ne
 Almanya2,000,000 - 7,000,000[4][5][6][7]
 Iraq2,000,000 - 3,000,000[8][9]
 Sûrî1,700,000[10][11][12]
 DYA1,000,000 - 3,000,000[13][14][15][16][17][18][19]
 Fransa1,000,000[20][21][22][23][24]
 Lîbya700,000 - 1,000,000[25]
 Bulgaristan588.318–800.000[26][27][28]
Flag of the United Kingdom (3-5).svg Keyaniya Yekbûyî500.000[29][30][31]
  Holenda400,000 - 2,000,000[32][33][34]
 Awistirya360,000 - 500,000[35][36]
 Libnan280,000[37][38]
 Belçîka250,000 - 500,000[39][40]
 Awistralya250,000[41][42]
 Qazaxistan250,000[43]
 Swêd185,000[44][45][46]
 Rûsya109,883–150,000[47][48]
 Azerbaycan130,000[49]
  Swîsre120,000[50]
 Misir100,000 - 1,500,000[51]
 Kanada100,000[52]
 Makedonyaya Bakur77,959–200,000[53][54]
 Danîmarka70,000 - 75,000[55][56]
 Qirgizistan55,000[57]
 Îtalya50,000[58]
 Yewnanistan49,000 - 130,000[59][60][61][62]
 Romanya28,226–80,000[63][64][65]
 Ûzbêkistan25,000[66]
 Kosova18,738–60,000[67][68]
 Norwêc16,500[69]
 Tirkmenistan13,000[70]
 Fînlenda10,000[71]
Ziman
Tirkî
Baweriya dînî
Îslam (sunîtî û elewîtî)
yên din: Xiristiyanî, Tengrî, Cihûtî

Tirk ji Asyaya Navendî di sedsala 11an de, bi fethên Selcûqî li Anatolyayê bi cih bûne. Împeratoriya Osmanî di nav çend sedsalan de piraniya Balkanê, Başûrê Qefqasyayê, Rojhilata Navîn (ji bilî Îranê, tevî ku wan beşek ji wê kontrol dikir) û Afrîkaya Bakur de desthilatdar bû. Împeratorî heya dawiya Şerê Cîhanî yê Yekem desthildar kir, dema ku ji aliyê hevpeymanan ve hat hilwêşandin û parçekirin.

EtîmolojîBiguhêre

Kurd di nav xwe de wana bi navê rom û roma reş jî bi nav dikin. Tê gotin ku ev ji bêjeya Roma tê û ji ber ku li rojavayê kurdan bi hezaran salan romayî û dûvikên romayiyan jiyane, kurdên ku li rojava bijiya jê rê gotine rom. Herwiha heya 100 sal berê jî peyva tirk nedihate bikaranîn û ev jî bûye sedem ku kurd bêjin rom.[75] Rêxistinên polîtîk ên kurdan ji ber ku di bin fîlozofiya "biratiya tirk û kurd" têdikoşiyan xwastin binavkirina rom ji holê rabe û di hemî xebatên xwe de hewla wê dan.

Jêderên pêşîn ên ku li ser "tirkan" disekinin, bi piranî çavkaniyên çînî yên di sedsala şeşan de ne. Di van çavkaniyan de "turk" wekî "tujue" (T'u-chüe) xuya dike.[76][77] Di sedsala yekem a pistî zayînî de, Pomponius Mela behsa "turcae" dike xelkekî ku li daristanên bakurê Deryaya Azov dijî. Plinî yê Kal navê "tyrcae" lê dike." Arkeologê inglîz Ellis Minns dibêje ku '"tyrcae", Τῦρκαι ji bo Ἱύρκαι "Iyrcae" sererastkirineke derewîn e, ji ber ku li gorî Herodotus jî (| Dîrok], iv. 22)[78] "Iyrkai" ev mirov in ku li derveyî "Thyssagetae" dijiyan.

DîrokBiguhêre

Dema SelçûqîBiguhêre

 
Nexşeya selcûqian di sedsala 11an
 
Serêkî ji aliya selçûqî wekî hat çekirin.

Selcûqiyan navê xwe ji Selcûq Xan (dor 1000), yê ku ji Oxuzan mila Kinikan bû, di sedsala 9an de li rojhelata Gola Aral (îroj Qezexistan, Ûzbêkistan) dijî bû, girtî bû. Selcûq Xan ji pê bavê xwe Dukak Xan mir re bû kargerê Oxûzan. Di 985an de Selçûq Xan bi Xanêdana xwe ve derbaza ola Îslam bû.[79] Selcûq Xan cara pêşin di bin kargeran Qaraxanan de bû.[80] Çar lawên Selçûq Xan Mikaîl, Îsraîl, Mûsa û Yûnûs hê bûn.

Di bin serdariya lawên Mîkaîl, Tûxrûl Beg (1038–1063) û Çaxri (1038–1060) de, Selcûqî di 1030an de ji Xorasan derketin û di 1040an de Cenga Dandanakan de Gaznawiyan bin xistin. Ji pê Tûxrûl Beg û Çaxrî Beg re dewleta Selcûqiyan bû du paran. Tûxrûl Beg rojavaya Keyîtî ji Îsfehan de, Çaxrî Beg jî ji Merw de rojhelata Keyîtî karger kir.[81] Tûxrûl beg keyîtiya xwe li îran û îraqê fireh kir. Ji pê Bûyîdan hilwaşiyan re wî bandora xwe li ser Ebasîyan ra kir. Tûxrûl beg li Bexdad ji Xelîfe unvana Siltan girt.[82]

Di bin kargera Alp Arslan (1060–1072) de keyîtî yek bû û ji pê serfiraziya di Cenga Malazgirt de di 1071 hembera Bîzansê re dagir kirina Anatoliya û Sûrî dest pê kir.[83] Di dema Alp Arslan de wan Fatimî yên li Meke û Medîne bin xistin û xelîfetiya Ebasî li Bexdayê şun da saz kir. Di bin kargera Alp Arslan û paşwerê xwe Melik Şah I (1072–1092) û wezîrê xweyê Farsî Nizam Elmulk (1065–1092) de keyitîye dema xweya herî baş dîtî bû. Di wê demê de medreseyên Nizam Elmulk hatin sazandin. Di wê demê de selcûqiyên Kerman li Oman hat sazandin.[84][85]

Ji pê wezîr Nizam Elmulk ji aliya xaşxaşiyan hat kuştin û mirina Siltan Melik-Şah (1092) re di keyîtîye de li ser textê ceng der ketin. Vê cengê heta 1118an dewam kir û keyîtî Xorasan û îraq de bû du paran.

Ji pê sedsala 11an li Anatoliya selcûqiya Anatoliya bi paytexta Qonye (demekî, Iconum) hat sazkirin re, li Sûrî jî selcûqî bûn çend paran mirnişiyan. Ew mirnişiyên li Sûrî ji pê re ji aliya zengiyan di sedsala 12'an de hat yekkirin û li şûnê eyûbiyan hat sazandin.[86]

Wextê tirkên AnatolyayêBiguhêre

Li Xorasanê dema siltan Sancar (1118–1157) de, lawê Melik Şah bû, selcûqiyan demeke xwe ya dina baş dît. Lê ji pê di 1141an de li Semerqand hembera Kara Kitaiyan de bin ket re çend salan şunda keyîtî hilwaşî ye. Selcûqiyên li Anatoliyayê ji pê binketîniyê di 1243an hembera Îlhanan re lawaz bûn û di 1307an de hilwaşî. Paşê bi awayê began dabeş bû û li ser bermayiyên vê dewletê Împeratoriya Osmaniyan ava bû.

Împeratoriya OsmanîBiguhêre

 
Nexşeya Beylikên tirk di sedsala 14an

Piştî ku Tirkên Oxiz bûn Misilman, nêzî alema Îslamê bûn û di sedsala 9an de li bakurê Deryaya Qezwînê û Behra Aralê dest bi bicihbûna xwe kirin.[87] Di sedsala 10an de, Selçûqiyan ji welatê bav û kalên xwe, Asyaya Navendî, bi tevlêkirina axa Farisan di nav sînorên xwe de, dest bi koça rojava kirin û Dewleta Selçûqiyan ava kirin.[88][89]

Di nîvê duyemîn ê sedsala 11an de Selçûqiyan dest bi niştecihbûnê kirin û êrîşî herêmên rojhilatê Anatolyayê kirin. Di sala 1071ê de, di serdema Siltan Alp Arslan de, bi serketina Selçûqiyan re piştî şerê Milazgirê yê di navbera Tirkên Selçûqî û Împeratoriya Bîzansê de, tevgera Tirknasî û îslamiyetê li ser axa Anatolyayê dest pê kir. Bi vê tevgerê re zimanê tirk derbasê Anatolyayê bûn û belav bûn.[90] Ji ber vê yekê Xiristiyanî û Yewnanî ku li herêmê belav bûbûn, hêdî hêdî misilmantî û çanda tirkan li şûna xwe girtin.[91][92]

Piştî belavbûna Împaratoriya Mezin a Selçûqiyan, Siltanên selcûqîyen ya Anatolyayê ku li ser mîrekiyên din ên Tirk ên li Anatoliyê desthilatdar bû, demeke dirêj li Anatoliyê desthilatdarî kir.[93] Selçûkiyên Anatoliyê ku paytexta wan bajarê Îznîk e, piştî ku bajarê Îznîkê di dema Sefera xaçperestan a yekem de ji aliyê Bîzansiyan ve hat girtin, di sala 1097an de ji aliyê siltan Kiliçarslan I ve paytexta xwe birin Qonyeyê û ji vê rojê û vir ve Qonye paytexta Dewleta Selçûqiyan e. Selçûqiyên ku serdema xwe ya zêrîn di serdema siltan Alaeddîn Keykubadê Yekem de jiyaye, piştî mirina I. Alaeddîn ketiye dewra rawestanê.[94]

Împeratoriya Mongolan ji mirina Alaeddîn Keykubad sûd werdigirin, bi êrîşa li ser sînorê rojhilatê Selçûqiyan hewl didin ku bikevin Anatoliyê. Bi rastî, bi têkçûna ku di encama Şerê Kosedagê de di navbera Dewleta Selçûqiyên Anatoliyê û Mongolan de di bin fermandariya Baycu Noyan de di sala 1243 de hat, Anatolya ket bin desthilatdariya Mongolan û Dewleta Selçûqiyan a Anatoliyê qels bû û dev ji xwe berda.[95] cihê mîrekiyên tirkan e. Di nav van mîrektiyan de, Mîrektiya Osmanoğulları, ku li derdora Söğut û Bilecikê hatibû damezrandin, di dawiya sedsala 13an de serxwebûna xwe ragihand.

 
Şere Konstantinopolîse navbera Tîrken Osmanîyan û Yewnanên Bizansê.

Mîrektiya Osmanî ya ku Osman I. serokatiya wê dikir, di salên pêş de gav bi gav mezin bû û li ser Anatolya, Balkan, Afrîkaya Bakur û Şam serdestiya xwe ava kir. Di 1453 de, II. Di bin serokatiya Mehmed de paytextê Împeratoriya Bîzansê Konstantînopolis hate fetihkirin û împaratorî ji holê rabû.[96][97] Piştî vê bûyerê Osmanî bûne împeratorî.

Di sala 1514an de Selîm I bi têkbirina Mîrê Safewî Şah Îsmaîl di Şerê Çaldiranê de sînorên împaratoriyê ber bi rojhilat ve berfireh kir. Di sala 1517an de Şam, Misir û Cezayir bi dest xist û li Misirê siltanatiya Memlûkan hilweşand û hişt ku xîlafeta Îslamê derbasî Împeratoriya Osmanî bibe. Dûv re çend şerên deryayî di navbera împaratoriyên Osmanî û Portûgalî de li ser Deryaya Sor, Deryaya Erebî û Kendava Besreyê hatin kirin da ku di Okyanûsa Hindî de serweriyê bi dest bixin.[98] Serdestiya Portekîzî ya li ser Hindistanê ji hêla Osmaniyan ve wekî xeteriyek hate dîtin. Ji ber ku vedîtina Cape of Good Hope û Amerîkî, bi saya Vedîtinên Erdnîgarî yên di dawiya sedsala 15an de, bû sedem ku rêyên bazirganiyê yên kevn ên ku bazirganiya di navbera Asyaya Rojhilat û Ewropaya Rojava de, ku di destê Osmaniyan de bûn, winda bikin. girîngiya wan û bandoreke neyînî li aboriya Osmanî kir.[99]

 
Şere Prevezayê di sala 1538.

Împeratoriya Osmanî di sedsalên 16an û 17an de, bi taybetî di serdema Siltan Silêmanê Qanûnî de gihîştiye lûtkeya xwe. Di vê serdemê de, tevahiya Balkanan, Ewropa Navîn û başûrê Polonyayê bi dagirkirina erdên ber bi Împeratoriya Romê ya Pîroz a Alman a li rojava ve hatin girtin. Hêzên deryayî yên Osmanî bi ketina pêşbirkên curbicur ên li behrê bi ser ketin. Piştî ku Barbaros Hayreddîn Paşa di Şerê Prevezayê de di sala 1538an de Xaçperestan têk bir, kontrola împaratoriyê li Deryaya Navîn zêde bû. Li rojhilat hin nakokiyên bi Dewleta Sefewiyan re, ku ji ber nakokiyên mezhebî û nakokiyên erdnîgarî derketine, carnan veguheriye şer û di navbera sedsalên 16 û 18an de berdewam kiriye.[100]

Împrratoriya Osmanî li paş zemanê ma û nikarîbû pêşketinên nû yên wekî Ronesans, Şoreşa Zanistî, Serdema Ronahîdariyê û Şoreşa pîşesaziyê ku li Ewropaya Rojava pêk hatin, bîne welatê xwe. Piştî Peymana Karlowitzê ku di sala 1699an de hat îmzekirin, bi dawîbûna Şerên Îttîfaqa Pîroz re, Împeratoriya Osmanî hêdî hêdî dest bi paşveçûnê kir. Gelek reform û Fermana Tanzîmatê ya ku di sedsala 19an de hat ragihandin, bi armanca nûjenkirina welat; lê bi ser neket.[101]

 
tekîliyen Aşîtî ya Karlowitzê.

Bi ser de jî, tevgera Osmanî ya ku ji bo parastina yekparebûna axa welêt hatibû pêşxistin û tê de fikra mirovên ji eslê xwe yên olî û etnîkî yên cuda bi hev re dijîn, bi ser neket û nekarî pêşî li perçebûnê bigire. Di sala 1854an de, di dema Şerê Krîmê de, Împeratoriya Osmanî cara yekem ket nav deynên biyanî; lê deyn nehatin dayîn. Di nava 20 salên pêş de gihîşt asta bilind û bû sedem ku aborî ber bi îflasê ve biçe û dewleta Osmanî bikeve rewşeke dijwar.[102] Piştî vê yekê felaketên wek Krîza Rojhilat a 1875-78 û Şerê Osmanî-Rûsya yên 1877-78 de çêbûn. Di encamê de dema ku aboriya Osmanî ji ber nekarî deynên xwe bide wêrankirin, di sala 1881’an de Düyun-u Umumiye ji aliyê welatên deyndêr ve ji bo misogerkirina berhevkirina deynan hate avakirin.[103] Bi vî awayî kontrola dahatên Împeratoriya Osmanî derbasî destên welatên deyndêr bû. Di destpêka sedsala 20an de Împaratoriya Osmanî li gorî hêzên ewropî bûye welatekî pîşesazî û kêm pêşketî.[104] Lê dîsa jî, ew li Asyaya Başûr-rojhilatê jî bibandor bûn ji ber ku osmaniyan leşker şandin ber vasalê xwe yê herî dûr, Sultanatiya Aceh li Sumatra, Îndonezya. Hêzên wî yên li Aceh li hember Portekîzên ku derbazî Okyanûsa Atlantîk û Hindistanê bûn, Sîltanatên Malacca dagir kirin, û Spanya ku ji Amerîkaya Latînî derbas bûn û Manîla misilmanên berê li Filîpînê dagir kirin, ji ber ku ev hêzên Îberî mijûl bûn. di şerên Osmanî-Habsburgan de ku bi navê Şerên Osmanî-Habsburgî dihatin binavkirin.[105] Wan şerê cîhanê li dijî Xelîfetiyê kirin.[106][107]

Împeratoriya Osmanî li aliyê hêzên navendî ket Şerê Cîhanî yê Yekem û di şer de têk çû. Bi Qanûna Dersînorkirinê ya ku ji ber zêdebûna rageşiya etnîkî ya bi Ermeniyan re di dema şer de hat derxistin, Ermenî ji aliyê dewletê ve ji Herêma Rojhilatê Anadoluyê koçî Sûriyeyê kirin. Li gorî çavkaniyên cuda, hate îdîakirin ku di dema koçberiyê de ji 300.000 heta 1.500.000 Ermenî jiyana xwe ji dest dane. Ev mirin ji aliyê gelek çavkaniyên cuda ve wekî Qirkirina Ermeniyan hatine pênasekirin. Li aliyê din aliyê tirk jî diyar kir ku bûyer ne jenosîd in û diyar kir ku ermenî tenê hatine veguhestin. Di dema şerê li împaratoriyê de ji bilî Ermeniyan, Yewnanî û Asûrî jî hatin kuştin û ev bûyer ji aliyê hin çavkaniyan ve weke jenosîd hatin pênasekirin.[108]

 
Kampanyayê Mezopotamyayê, Şere Kûtê.

Piştî şer, neteweyên girêdayî împaratoriyê ji hev cuda bûn û dewletên nû yên cuda ava kirin. Di 30ê Cotmeha 1918an de Împeratoriya Osmanî bi Hêzên Antant re Agirbesta Mudrosê îmze kir. Peymana Sêvrê ku di 10ê Tebaxa 1920an de hat îmzekirin, axa Osmanî di nav Hêzên Antantê de hat parvekirin, lê nekarî bikeve meriyetê.[109]

ZimanBiguhêre

  Gotara bingehîn: Zimanê tirkî
 
Belavbûna tirkî di Tirkiye û Kurdistanê

Zimanê tirkî ji zimanên tirknîjad yên ku herî zêde tê axaftin, li derdora 80 heya 90 mîlyonî diaxivin. Zimanê neteweyî yê Tirkiye û Bakurê Kîprosê e. Komên piçûktir ên girîng ên tirkîaxêv jî li Iraq, Sûrî, Almanya, Awistirya, Bulgaristan, Makedonyaya Bakur,[110] Yewnanistan,[111] Qefqasya û deverên din ên Ewropa û Asyaya Navendî hene. Kîpros daxwaz ji Yekîtiya Ewropayê ku zimanê tirkî wek zimanê fermî lê zêde bike, tevî ku Tirkiye ne endamê wê ye.[112] Zimanê tirkî di cîhanê de di rêza 13emîn de ye.

DînBiguhêre

Piranîya gelên tirk misilman in an jî misilmanên ku li ser dersên ekola Henefî ya Îslama Sunnî dişopînin. Ew civaka herî mezin a misilman li Tirkiye û Kîprosê Bakur û her weha komên herî mezin ên misilman li Awistirya, Bulgaristan, Komara Çekya, Danîmarka, Almanya, Liechtenstein, Holenda, ava dikin. Romanya û Swîsre. Ji bilî tirkên sunnî, tirkên elewî jî hene ku kevneşopiyên wan ên îslamî yên herêmî li Anatolyayê bi cih bûne, herwiha Bektaşiyên ku bi kevneşopî navenda wan Anatolya û Balkanan in.[113]

Belavbûna romî û tirkanBiguhêre

Li gorî çapa 2016 ya CIA World Factbook, 70-75% ji nifûsa Tirkiyê ji tirkên etnîkî pêk tê, ku Kurd %19 û hindikahiyên din jî di navbera 7 û %12 de ne.[114] Li gorî Milliyet, di rapora 2008-an de ku ji hêla akademîsyenên sê zanîngehên Tirkiyeyê yên li rojhilatê Anatolyayê ve ji bo Konseya Ewlehiya Neteweyî ya Tirkiyê hat amadekirin, tê pêşniyarkirin ku bi qasî 55 milyon tirkên etnîkî, 9,6 milyon kurd, 3 milyon zaza, 2,5 milyon çerkez, 2 milyon Bosnak, 500,000-1,3 milyon albanî, 1 milyon gurcî, 870.000 ereb, 600.000 pomak, 80.000 laz, 60.000 ermenî, 30.000 brîtanî, 25.000 asûrî / suryanî, 20.000 cihû û 15.000 Yewnan û 500 êzdî li Tirkîyê dijîn.[115]

Mijarên têkildarBiguhêre

ÇavkanîBiguhêre

  1. Garibova, Jala (2011), "A Pan-Turkic Dream: Language Unification of Turks", in Fishman, Joshua; Garcia, Ofelia (eds.), Handbook of Language and Ethnic Identity: The Success-Failure Continuum in Language and Ethnic Identity Efforts, Oxford University Press, p. 268, ISBN 9780199837991, Approximately 200 million people,... speak nearly 40 Turkic languages and dialects. Turkey is the largest Turkic state, with about 60 million ethnic Turks living in its territories.
  2. Hobbs, Joseph J. (2017), Fundamentals of World Regional Geography, Cengage, p. 223, ISBN 9781305854956, The greatest are the 65 million Turks of Turkey, who speak Turkish, a Turkic language...
  3. "Kopîkirina arşîvê" (PDF). Ji orîjînalê (PDF) di 27 îlon 2013 de hat arşîvkirin. Roja wergirtinê: 20 kanûna paşîn 2023.
  4. "Bevölkerung mit Migrationshintergrund - Ergebnisse des Mikrozensus - Fachserie 1 Reihe 2.2 - 2017" (PDF). Statistisches Bundesamt (bi elmanî). r. 61. Ji orîjînalê (PDF) di 17 tîrmeh 2019 de hat arşîvkirin. Roja wergirtinê: 17 tîrmeh 2019.
  5. Engstrom, Aineias (12 January 2021), "Turkish-German "dream team" behind first COVID-19 vaccine", Portland State Vanguard, Portland State University, archived from the original on 27 March 2021, retrieved 27 March 2021, The German census does not gather data on ethnicity, however according to estimates, somewhere between 4–7 million people with Turkish roots, or 5–9% of the population, live in Germany.
  6. Szyszkowitz, Tessa (2005), "Germany", in Von Hippel, Karin (ed.), Europe Confronts Terrorism, Palgrave Macmillan, p. 53, ISBN 978-0230524590, It is a little late to start the debate about being an immigrant country now, when already seven million Turks live in Germany.
  7. Orvis, Stephen; Drogus, Carol Ann (2018). Introducing Comparative Politics: Concepts and Cases in Context. CQ Press. p. 305. ISBN 978-1-5443-7444-4. Today, nearly three million ethnic Turks live in Germany, and many have raised children there.
  8. Triana, María (2017), Managing Diversity in Organizations: A Global Perspective, Taylor & Francis, p. 168, ISBN 978-1-317-42368-3, Turkmen, Iraqi citizens of Turkish origin, are the third largest ethnic group in Iraq after Arabs and Kurds and they are said to number about 3 million of Iraq's 34.7 million citizens according to the Iraqi Ministry of Planning.
  9. Tastekin, Fehim (2018). "Why Iraqi Turkmens are excluded from the new government". Al-Monitor. Archived from the original on 12 September 2021. Retrieved 12 September 2021. Turkmens are said to be 10-13% of the overall Iraqi population [i.e. 4 to 5 million out of a total population of 40 million], but that ratio is not reflected in parliament.
  10. Aikman, David (2014), The Mirage of Peace: Understand The Never-Ending Conflict in the Middle East, Baker Publishing Group, ISBN 9781441223555, There is also about 1.7 million Turks in Syria, and about 800,000 Druze,...
  11. Maisel, Sebastian (2016), Yezidis in Syria: Identity Building among a Double Minority, Lexington Books, r. 15, ISBN 978-0739177754
  12. Pierre, Beckouche (2017), "The Country Reports: Syria", Europe's Mediterranean Neighbourhood, Edward Elgar Publishing, r. 178–180, ISBN 978-1786431493, Before 2011, Syria's population was 74% Sunni Muslim, including...Turkmen (4%)...
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  14. Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. "Immigration and Ethnicity: Turks". Roja wergirtinê: 7 sibat 2010.
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  79. Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 161,164; "renewed the Seljuk attempt to found a great Turko-Persian empire in eastern Iran..", "It is to be noted that the Seljuks, those Turkomans who became sultans of Persia, did not Turkify Persia-no doubt because they did not wish to do so. On the contrary, it was they who voluntarily became Persians and who, in the manner of the great old Sassanid kings, strove to protect the Iranian populations from the plundering of Ghuzz bands and save Iranian culture from the Turkoman menace."
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  82. Nishapuri, Zahir al-Din Nishapuri (2001), "The History of the Seljuq Turks from the Jami’ al-Tawarikh: An Ilkhanid Adaptation of the Saljuq-nama of Zahir al-Din Nishapuri," Partial tr. K.A. Luther, ed. C.E. Bosworth, Richmond, UK. K.A. Luther, p. 9: "[T]he Turks were illiterate and uncultivated when they arrived in Khurasan and had to depend on Iranian scribes, poets, jurists and theologians to man the institution of the Empire")
  83. Mehmed Fuad Koprulu, Early Mystics in Turkish Literature, Translated by Gary Leiser and Robert Dankoff, Routledge, 2006, p. 149: "If we wish to sketch, in broad outline, the civilization created by the Seljuks of Anatolia, we must recognize that the local, i.e. non-Muslim, element was fairly insignificant compared to the Turkish and Arab-Persian elements, and that the Persian element was paramount/The Seljuk rulers, to be sure, who were in contact with not only Muslim Persian civilization, but also with the Arab civilizations in al-jazīra and Syria – indeed, with all Muslim peoples as far as India – also had connections with {various} Byzantine courts. Some of these rulers, like the great 'Ala' al-Dīn Kai-Qubād I himself, who married Byzantine princesses and thus strengthened relations with their neighbors to the west, lived for many years in Byzantium and became very familiar with the customs and ceremonial at the Byzantine court. Still, this close contact with the ancient Greco-Roman and Christian traditions only resulted in their adoption of a policy of tolerance toward art, aesthetic life, painting, music, independent thought – in short, toward those things that were frowned upon by the narrow and piously ascetic views {of their subjects}. The contact of the common people with the Greeks and Armenians had basically the same result. {Before coming to Anatolia}, the Turks had been in contact with many nations and had long shown their ability to synthesize the artistic elements that they had adopted from these nations. When they settled in Anatolia, they encountered peoples with whom they had not yet been in contact and immediately established relations with them as well. 'Ala' al-Dīn Kai-Qubād I established ties with the Genoese and, especially, the Venetians at the ports of Sinop and Antalya, which belonged to him, and granted them commercial and legal concessions. Meanwhile, the Mongol invasion, which caused a great number of scholars and artisans to flee from Turkistan, Iran, Afghanistan, and Khwārazm and settle within the Empire of the Seljuks of Anatolia, resulted in a reinforcing of Persian influence on the Anatolian Turks. Indeed, despite all claims to the contrary, there is no question that Persian influence was paramount among the Seljuks of Anatolia. This is clearly revealed by the fact that the sultans who ascended the throne after Ghiyāth al-Dīn Kai-Khusraw I assumed titles taken from ancient Persian mythology, like Kai-Khusraw, Kai-Kā'ūs, and Kai-Qubād; and that 'Ala' al-Dīn Kai-Qubād I had some passages from the Shāhnāme inscribed on the walls of Konya and Sivas. When we take into consideration domestic life in the Konya courts and the sincerity of the favor and attachment of the rulers to Persian poets and Persian literature, then this fact {i.e. the importance of Persian influence} is undeniable. With regard to the private lives of the rulers, their amusements, and palace ceremonial, the most definite influence was also that of Iran, mixed with the early Turkish traditions, and not that of Byzantium." ^
  84. Ehsan Yarshater, "Iran" in Encyclopedia Iranica: "The ascent of the Saljuqids also put an end to a period which Minorsky has called "the Persian intermezzo" (see Minorsky, 1932, p. 21), when Iranian dynasties, consisting mainly of the Saffarids, the Samanids, the Ziyarids, the Buyids, the Kakuyids, and the Bavandids of Tabarestan and Gilan, ruled most of Iran. By all accounts, weary of the miseries and devastations of never-ending conflicts and wars, Persians seemed to have sighed with relief and to have welcomed the stability of the Saljuqid rule, all the more so since the Saljuqids mitigated the effect of their foreignness, quickly adopting the Persian culture and court customs and procedures and leaving the civil administration in the hand of Persian personnel, headed by such capable and learned viziers as ‘Amid-al-Molk Kondori and Nezam-al-Molk."
  85. Sümer, Faruk (2009). "SELÇUKS of Syria" (PDF). TDV Encyclopedia of Islam, Vol. 36 (Sakal – Sevm) (in Turkish). Istanbul: Turkiye Diyanet Foundation, Centre for Islamic Studies. pp. 385–386. ISBN 978-975-389-566-8.
  86. Bosworth, C.E.; Hillenbrand, R.; Rogers, J.M.; Blois, F.C. de; Bosworth, C.E.; Darley-Doran, R.E., "Saldjukids," Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2009: "Culturally, the consisting of the Seljuq Empire marked a further step in the dethronement of Arabic from being the sole lingua franca of educated and polite society in the Middle East. Coming as they did through a Transoxania which was still substantially Iranian and into Persia proper, the Seljuqs with no high-level Turkish cultural or literary heritage of their own – took over that of Persia, so that the Persian language became the administration and culture in their land of Persia and Anatolia. The Persian culture of the Rum Seljuqs was particularly splendid, and it was only gradually that Turkish emerged there as a parallel language in the field of government and adab; the Persian imprint in Ottoman civilization was to remain strong until the 19th century.
  87. Hathaway, Jane (2008). The Arab Lands under Ottoman Rule, 1516–1800. Pearson Education Ltd. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-582-41899-8. historians of the Ottoman Empire have rejected the narrative of decline in favor of one of crisis and adaptation; Tezcan, Baki (2010). The Second Ottoman Empire: Political and Social Transformation in the Early Modern Period. Cambridge University Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-107-41144-9. Ottomanist historians have produced several works in the last decades, revising the traditional understanding of this period from various angles, some of which were not even considered as topics of historical inquiry in the mid-twentieth century. Thanks to these works, the conventional narrative of Ottoman history – that in the late sixteenth century the Ottoman Empire entered a prolonged period of decline marked by steadily increasing military decay and institutional corruption – has been discarded.; Woodhead, Christine (2011). "Introduction". In Christine Woodhead (ed.). The Ottoman World. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-415-44492-7. Ottomanist historians have largely jettisoned the notion of a post-1600 'decline' ^
  88. A process described in the pioneering work, Speros Vryonis, The decline of medieval Hellenism in Asia Minor: and the process of Islamization from the eleventh through the fifteenth century, (Berkeley: University of California, 1971) ISBN 978-1597404761
  89. Pamuk, Şevket (2000). A Monetary History of the Ottoman Empire. Cambridge University Press. pp. 30–31. ISBN 0521441978. Archived from the original on 14 January 2023. Retrieved 21 October 2022. The Ottomans began to strike coins in the name of Orhan Bey in 1326. These earliest coins carried inscriptions such as "the great Sultan, Orhan son of Osman" [...] Ottoman historiography has adopted 1299 as the date for the foundation of the state. 1299 might represent the date at which the Ottomans finally obtained their independence from the Seljuk sultan at Konya. Probably, they were forced at the same time, or very soon thereafter, to accept the overlordship of the Ilkhanids [...] Numismatic evidence thus suggest that independence did not really occur until 1326.
  90. The Ahiler Beylik is sometimes considered one of the Anatolian Beyliks but was a mercantile republic rather than a monarchical dynasty. See Ahiler for more information.
  91. www.metmuseum.org https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/otto1/hd_otto1.htm. Roja wergirtinê: 23 kanûna paşîn 2023. {{cite web}}: Parametreya |title= kêm an vala ye (alîkarî)
  92. Ágoston, Gábor (2009). "Introduction". In Ágoston, Gábor; Bruce Masters (eds.). Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. p. xxxii.; Faroqhi, Suraiya (1994). "Crisis and Change, 1590–1699". In İnalcık, Halil; Donald Quataert (eds.). An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, 1300–1914. Vol. 2. Cambridge University Press. p. 553. ISBN 978-0-521-57456-3. In the past fifty years, scholars have frequently tended to view this decreasing participation of the sultan in political life as evidence for "Ottoman decadence", which supposedly began at some time during the second half of the sixteenth century. But recently, more note has been taken of the fact that the Ottoman Empire was still a formidable military and political power throughout the seventeenth century, and that noticeable though limited economic recovery followed the crisis of the years around 1600; after the crisis of the 1683–1699 war, there followed a longer and more decisive economic upswing. Major evidence of decline was not visible before the second half of the eighteenth century.
  93. A'goston, Ga'bor; Masters, Bruce Alan (2008). Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. Infobase Publishing, NY. p. 444. ISBN 978-0-8160-6259-1. "Osman was simply one among a number Turkoman tribal leaders operating in the Sakarya region."; "Osman I". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 24 April 2018. Retrieved 1 July 2020. Osman I, also called Osman Gazi, (born c. 1258—died 1324 or 1326), ruler of a Turkmen principality in northwestern Anatolia who is regarded as the founder of the Ottoman Turkish state.
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  95. "The Ottoman Empire". nzhistory.govt.nz (bi îngilîzî). Roja wergirtinê: 23 kanûna paşîn 2023.
  96. Ayşe Gül Sertkaya (2002). "Şeyhzade Abdurrezak Bahşı". In György Hazai (ed.). Archivum Ottomanicum. Vol. 20. pp. 114–115. Archived from the original on 24 October 2022. Retrieved 23 October 2022. As a result, we can claim that Şeyhzade Abdürrezak Bahşı was a scribe lived in the palaces of Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror and his son Bayezid-i Veli in the 15th century, wrote letters (bitig) and firmans (yarlığ) sent to Eastern Turks by Mehmed II and Bayezid II in both Uighur and Arabic scripts and in East Turkestan (Chagatai) language.
  97. "Ottoman Empire | HISTORY". www.history.com. Roja wergirtinê: 23 kanûna paşîn 2023.
  98. Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire, Gábor Ágoston, Bruce Alan Masters, page 40
  99. Kate Fleet (1999). European and Islamic Trade in the Early Ottoman State: The Merchants of Genoa and Turkey. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-64221-3
  100. "The Ottoman Empire | eHISTORY". ehistory.osu.edu. Roja wergirtinê: 23 kanûna paşîn 2023.
  101. Fetvacı, Emine (2013). Picturing History at the Ottoman Court. Indiana University Press. p. 31. ISBN 978-0253006783. Archived from the original on 21 October 2022. Retrieved 21 October 2022. Persian literature, and belles-lettres in particular, were part of the curriculum: a Persian dictionary, a manual on prose composition; and Sa'dis 'Gulistan', one of the classics of Persian poetry, were borrowed. All these titles would be appropriate in the religious and cultural education of the newly converted young men.
  102. Spuler, Bertold (2003). Persian Historiography and Geography. p. 68. ISBN 9789971774882. Archived from the original on 14 January 2023. Retrieved 21 October 2022. On the whole, the circumstance in Turkey took a similar course: in Anatolia, the Persian language had played a significant role as the carrier of civilization. [...] where it was at time, to some extent, the language of diplomacy [...] However Persian maintained its position also during the early Ottoman period in the composition of histories and even Sultan Salim I, a bitter enemy of Iran and the Shi'ites, wrote poetry in Persian. Besides some poetical adaptations, the most important historiographical works are: Idris Bidlisi's flowery "Hasht Bihist", or Seven Paradises, begun in 1502 by the request of Sultan Bayazid II and covering the first eight Ottoman rulers...
  103. Mohamed Hedi Cherif - Daniel Panzac (1995). Histoire économique et sociale de l'Empire ottoman et de la Turquie (1326-1960) (in French). Peeters Publishers. ISBN 90-6831-799-7.
  104. A lock-hold on trade between western Europe and Asia is often cited as a primary motivation for Isabella I of Castile to fund Christopher Columbus's westward journey to find a sailing route to Asia and, more generally, for European seafaring nations to explore alternative trade routes (e.g., K.D. Madan, Life and travels of Vasco Da Gama (1998), 9; I. Stavans, Imagining Columbus: the literary voyage (2001), 5; W.B. Wheeler and S. Becker, Discovering the American Past. A Look at the Evidence: to 1877 (2006), 105). This traditional viewpoint has been attacked as unfounded in an influential article by A.H. Lybyer ("The Ottoman Turks and the Routes of Oriental Trade", English Historical Review, 120 (1915), 577–588), who sees the rise of Ottoman power and the beginnings of Portuguese and Spanish explorations as unrelated events. His view has not been universally accepted (cf. K.M. Setton, The Papacy and the Levant (1204–1571), Vol. 2: The Fifteenth Century (Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 127) (1978), 335).
  105. lock-hold on trade between western Europe and Asia is often cited as a primary motivation for Isabella I of Castile to fund Christopher Columbus's westward journey to find a sailing route to Asia and, more generally, for European seafaring nations to explore alternative trade routes (e.g., K.D. Madan, Life and travels of Vasco Da Gama (1998), 9; I. Stavans, Imagining Columbus: the literary voyage (2001), 5; W.B. Wheeler and S. Becker, Discovering the American Past. A Look at the Evidence: to 1877 (2006), 105). This traditional viewpoint has been attacked as unfounded in an influential article by A.H. Lybyer ("The Ottoman Turks and the Routes of Oriental Trade", English Historical Review, 120 (1915), 577–588), who sees the rise of Ottoman power and the beginnings of Portuguese and Spanish explorations as unrelated events. His view has not been universally accepted (cf. K.M. Setton, The Papacy and the Levant (1204–1571), Vol. 2: The Fifteenth Century (Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 127) (1978), 335).
  106. Ottoman Turkish, the city was known by various names, among which were Kostantiniyye (قسطنطينيه) (replacing the suffix -polis with the Arabic nisba), Dersaadet (در سعادت) and Istanbul (استانبول). Names other than Istanbul became obsolete in Turkish after the proclamation of the Republic of Turkey in 1923,[5] and after Turkey's transition to Latin script in 1928,[6] the Turkish government in 1930 requested that foreign embassies and companies use Istanbul, and that name became widely accepted internationally.[7] Eldem Edhem, author of an entry on Istanbul in Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire, stated that the majority of the Turkish people circa 2010, including historians, believe using "Constantinople" to refer to the Ottoman-era city is "politically incorrect" despite any historical accuracy.
  107. Strauss, Johann (2010). "A Constitution for a Multilingual Empire: Translations of the Kanun-ı Esasi and Other Official Texts into Minority Languages". In Herzog, Christoph; Malek Sharif (eds.). The First Ottoman Experiment in Democracy. Würzburg: Orient-Institut Istanbul. pp. 21–51. Archived from the original on 11 October 2019. Retrieved 15 September 2019. (info page on book Archived 20 September 2019 at the Wayback Machine at Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 26 (PDF p. 28): "French had become a sort of semi-official language in the Ottoman Empire in the wake of the Tanzimat reforms.[...] It is true that French was not an ethnic language of the Ottoman Empire. But it was the only Western language which would become increasingly widespread among educated persons in all linguistic communities."
  108. Astourian, Stephan (2011). "The Silence of the Land: Agrarian Relations, Ethnicity, and Power". A Question of Genocide: Armenians and Turks at the End of the Ottoman Empire. Oxford University Press. pp. 55–81. ISBN 978-0-19-539374-3.
  109. The Treaty of Sèvres (10 August 1920) afforded a small existence to the Ottoman Empire. On 1 November 1922, the Grand National Assembly (GNAT) abolished the sultanate and declared that all the deeds of the Ottoman regime in Constantinople were null and void as of 16 March 1920, the date of the occupation of Constantinople under the terms of the Treaty of Sèvres. The international recognition of the GNAT and the Government of Ankara was achieved through the signing of the Treaty of Lausanne on 24 July 1923. The Grand National Assembly of Turkey promulgated the Republic on 29 October 1923, which ended the Ottoman Empire in history. ^
  110. Boeschoten, Henrik. Turkic Languages in Contact.
  111. "The Muslim Minority of Greek Thrace". web.archive.org. 1 tîrmeh 2017. Ji orîjînalê hat arşîvkirin li 1 tîrmeh 2017. Roja wergirtinê: 23 kanûna paşîn 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  112. Kanter, James (4 kanûna paşîn 2017). "As the E.U.'s Language Roster Swells, So Does the Burden". The New York Times (bi American English). Roja wergirtinê: 23 kanûna paşîn 2023.
  113. study.com https://study.com/academy/lesson/the-rise-of-the-turks-their-impact-on-islam.html. Roja wergirtinê: 20 kanûna paşîn 2023. {{cite web}}: Parametreya |title= kêm an vala ye (alîkarî)
  114. Turkey Girêdana arşîvê 2017-07-02 li ser Wayback Machine. The World Factbook. CIA
  115. "Türkiyedeki Kürtlerin Sayısı!". Milliyet (bi tirkî). 6 hezîran 2008. Roja wergirtinê: 7 hezîran 2008.