Cudahiya di navbera guhertoyên "Marê mertal" de

13.536 bayt hatine jêbirin ,  berî 8 salan
kurteya guhartinê tune ye
{{ne rind kurdî}}
{{Taxobox
| name = Marên bijehr (''Elapidae'')
''Elapidae'' marên mertal an kefçemaran dihewîne ku gelek jehrawî û jehravêj e gor çêkirina dirantûjên wê. Kobrayan ji dirêjî 18 cm ta 5,6 m hene wek [[şahkobra]] ku li ser 325 [[cure]] û 61 [[cins]]an hatine dabeşandin ta niha<ref name="ITIS">{{ITIS |id=174348 |taxon=Elapidae |accessdate=27 November 2006}}</ref>.
 
==Hinek Cinsên Marên mertal==
==Cins û cure==
 
{|cellspacing=0 cellpadding=2 border=1 style="border-collapse: collapse; font-size: x-small; width: auto; margin: 1em auto 2em"
*[[Acalyptophis]]:Marê avê stûnserî
!bgcolor="#f0f0f0"|Cins<ref name="ITIS"/>
*[[Acanthophis]]:Marê mirdarok.
!bgcolor="#f0f0f0"|Takson<br />Daneyar<ref name="ITIS"/>
*[[Aipysurus]]:Marê avê zeytûnî.
!bgcolor="#f0f0f0"|Cure<ref name="ITIS"/>
*[[Austrelaps]]:Marê serîpaxir.
!bgcolor="#f0f0f0"|Binecure*<ref name="ITIS"/>
*[[Demansia]]:Tajangmar.
!bgcolor="#f0f0f0"|Navê<br />Gelemper
*[[Dendroaspis]]:Mamba an marê devreş.
!bgcolor="#f0f0f0"|Belavbûna<br />Erdnîgarî<ref name="NRDB"/>
*[[Hemachatus]]:Kefçemarê tifuk.
|-
* [[Naja]]:Kobra an kefçemar.
|style="min-width:10% ; max-width:15%"|''[[Acalyptophis]]''
|style="width:10%"|[[George Albert Boulenger|Boulenger]], 1869
|style="width:5%; text-align: center"|1
|style="width:5%; text-align: center"|0
|style="max-width:15%"|Marê avê stûnserî
|Gulf of Thailand, South China Sea, Strait of Taiwan, û berava [[Guangdong]], [[Indonesia]],[[Philippines]], [[New Guinea]], [[New Caledonia]], [[Awistraliya]] Northern Territory, Queensland, û Rojavaya Awistraliya
|-
|''[[Acanthophis]]''
|[[Daudin]], 1803
|align="center"|7
|align="center"|0
|Marê mirdarok
|Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia Seram û giravên Tanimbar.
|-
|''[[Aipysurus]]''
|[[Bernard Germain Étienne comte de La Ville-sur-Illon La Cépède|Lacépède]], 1804
|align="center"|7
|align="center"|1
|Marê avê zeytûnî
|[[Timor Sea]], South China Sea, Gulf of Thailand, and coasts of Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia), New Caledonia, [[Loyalty Islands]], southern New Guinea, Indonesia, western [[Malaysia]] and [[Vietnam]]
|-
|''[[Aspidelaps]]''
|[[Leopold Fitzinger|Fitzinger]], 1843
|align="center"|2
|align="center"|4
|Kobrayê posmertal
|[[South Africa]] ([[Cape Province]], [[Transvaal Province|Transvaal]]), [[Namibia]], southern [[Angola]], [[Botswana]], [[Zimbabwe]], [[Mozambique]]
|-
|''[[Aspidomorphus]]''
|[[Leopold Fitzinger|Fitzinger]], 1843
|align="center"|3
|align="center"|3
|Marê mirdarokê bigerdenîk
|[[New Guinea]]
|-
|''[[Astrotia]]''
|Fischer, 1855
|align="center"|1
|align="center"|0
|Marê ava Stokes
|Coastal areas from west [[India]] and [[Sri Lanka]] through Gulf of Thailand to China Sea, west Malaysia, Indonesia east to New Guinea, north and east coasts of Australia, the Philippines
|-
|''[[Austrelaps]]''
|[[Eric Worrell|Worrell]], 1963
|align="center"|3
|align="center"|0
|Marê serîpaxir
|Australia (South Australia, New South Wales, Victoria, [[Tasmania]])
|-
|''[[Boulengerina]]''
|[[Louis Dollo|Dollo]], 1886
|align="center"|2
|align="center"|1
|Kobrayê avê
|[[Cameroon]], [[Gabon]], [[Democratic Republic of the Congo]], [[Republic of the Congo|Congo]], [[Central African Republic]], [[Tanzania]], [[Equatorial Guinea]], [[Rwanda]], [[Burundi]], [[Zambia]]
|-
|''[[Bungarus]]''
|[[François Marie Daudin|Daudin]], 1803
|align="center"|12
|align="center"|4
|Marê kraît
|[[India]] (incl. [[Andaman Islands|Andaman Island]]), [[Myanmar]], [[Nepal]], Vietnam, [[Afghanistan]], [[Pakistan]], [[Sri Lanka]], [[Bangladesh]], [[Cambodia]], Indonesia ([[Java (island)|Java]], [[Sumatra]], [[Bali]], [[Sulawesi]]), [[Peninsular Malaysia]], [[Singapore]], [[Taiwan]], [[Thailand]]
|-
|''[[Cacophis]]''
|[[Albert Günther|Günther]], 1863
|align="center"|4
|align="center"|0
|Marê bitaca daristan-baranî
|Australia (New South Wales, Queensland)
|-
|''[[Calliophis]]''
|[[John Edward Gray|Gray]], 1834
|align="center"|8
|align="center"|11
|Morîmarê rojhilatî
|India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Indonesia, Cambodia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Burma, Brunei, the Philippines, Vietnam, Laos, southern China, Japan (Ryukyu Islands), Taiwan
|-
|''[[Demansia]]''
|[[John Edward Gray|Gray]], 1842
|align="center"|9
|align="center"|2
|Tajangmar
|New Guinea, continental Australia
|-
|''[[Dendroaspis]]''
|[[Hermann Schlegel|Schlegel]], 1848
|align="center"|4
|align="center"|1
|Devreş mar an mamba
|Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Malawi, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Guinea, Gabon, Principe (Gulf of Guinea), Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Congo, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Equatorial Guinea, Angola, Sudan, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Eritrea, Senegal, Mali, Ethiopia, Ivory Coast, Namibia, Somalia, Swaziland, Zambia, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Sierra Leone
|-
|''[[Ornamental Snake|Denisonia]]''
|[[Gerard Krefft|Krefft]], 1869
|align="center"|2
|align="center"|0
|ornamental snakes
|Central Queensland and central northern New South Wales, Australia
|-
|''[[Drysdalia]]''
|[[Eric Worrell|Worrell]], 1961
|align="center"|3
|align="center"|0
|Marê giyanê Başûr-rojavayî
|Southern Australia (Western Australia, South Australia, Victoria, Tasmania, New South Wales)
|-
|''[[Echiopsis]]''
|[[Leopold Fitzinger|Fitzinger]], 1843
|align="center"|1
|align="center"|0
|bardick
|Southern Australia (Western Australia, South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales)
|-
|''[[Elapognathus]]''
|[[George Albert Boulenger|Boulenger]], 1896
|align="center"|2
|align="center"|0
|southwestern grass snakes
|Western Australia
|-
|''[[Elapsoidea]]''
|[[José Vicente Barbosa du Bocage|Bocage]], 1866
|align="center"|10
|align="center"|7
|African or venomous garter snakes (not related to North American garter snakes, which are nonvenomous)
|Senegal, South Africa, Mozambique, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Gambia, Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Uganda, Senegal, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Congo, Zambia, Kenya, north Burundi, Rwanda, Ethiopia, Uganda, Somalia
|-
|''[[Emydocephalus]]''
|[[Gerard Krefft|Krefft]], 1869
|align="center"|2
|align="center"|0
|Marê avê serîkusî
|Beraviyên Tîmûrê (Indonesian Sea), New Caledonia, Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia), and in the Southeast Asian Sea along the coasts of China, Taiwan, Japan, and the Ryukyu Islands
|-
|''[[Enhydrina]]''
|[[John Edward Gray|Gray]], 1849
|align="center"|2
|align="center"|0
|beaked sea snakes
|In the Persian Gulf (Oman, United Arab Emirates, etc.), south to the Seychelles and Madagascar,
Southeast Asian Sea (Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam), Australia (North Territory, Queensland), New Guinea and Papua New Guinea
|-
|''[[Ephalophis]]''
|[[Malcolm Arthur Smith|M.A. Smith]], 1931
|align="center"|1
|align="center"|0
|Grey's mudsnake
|Northwestern Australia
|-
|''[[Furina]]''
|[[André Marie Constant Duméril|A.M.C. Duméril]], 1853
|align="center"|3
|align="center"|0
|pale-naped snakes
|Mainland Australia
|-
|''[[Glyphodon]]''
|[[Albert Günther|Günther]], 1858
|align="center"|2
|align="center"|0
|Marê serîqehweyî
|Australia (Queensland), New Guinea
|-
|''[[Hemachatus]]''
|[[John Fleming (naturalist)|Fleming]], 1822
|align="center"|1
|align="center"|0
|Kobra an kefçemarê tifuk
|South Africa, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Swaziland
|-
|''[[Hemiaspis]]''
|[[Leopold Fitzinger|Fitzinger]], 1861
|align="center"|2
|align="center"|0
|swamp snakes
|Eastern Australia (New South Wales, Queensland)
|-
|''[[Hemibungarus]]''
|[[Wilhelm Peters|W. Peters]], 1862
|align="center"|1
|align="center"|2
|Morîmarê Asyayî
|Taiwan, Japan (Ryukyu Islands)
|-
|''[[Homoroselaps]]''
|[[Giorgio Jan|Jan]], 1858
|align="center"|2
|align="center"|0
|harlequin snakes
|South Africa
|-
|''[[Hoplocephalus]]''
|[[Johann Georg Wagler|Wagler]], 1830
|align="center"|3
|align="center"|0
|broad-headed snakes
|Eastern Australia (New South Wales, Queensland)
|-
|''[[Hydrelaps]]''
|[[George Albert Boulenger|Boulenger]], 1896
|align="center"|1
|align="center"|0
|Port Darwin mudsnake
|Northern Australia, southern New Guinea
|-
|''[[Hydrophis]]''
|[[Pierre André Latreille|Latreille]] ''In'' [[Charles-Nicolas-Sigisbert Sonnini de Manoncourt|Sonnini]] & Latreille, 1801
|align="center"|34
|align="center"|3
|Marê avê
|Indoaustralian and Southeast Asian waters.<ref name="Cyb">[http://www.cyberlizard.plus.com/venomous5.htm The Hydrophiidae] at [http://www.cyberlizard.plus.com/ Cyberlizard's home pages]. Accessed [12 August] [2007].</ref>
|-
|''[[Kerilia]]''
|[[John Edward Gray|Gray]], 1849
|align="center"|1
|align="center"|0
|Jerdon's sea snake
|Southeast Asian waters<ref name="Cyb"/>
|-
|''[[Kolpophis]]''
|[[Malcolm Arthur Smith|M.A. Smith]], 1926
|align="center"|1
|align="center"|0
|bighead sea snake
|Indian Ocean<ref name="Cyb"/>
|-
|''[[Lapemis]]''
|[[John Edward Gray|Gray]], 1835
|align="center"|1
|align="center"|1
|Shaw's sea snake
|Persian Gulf to Indian Ocean, South China Sea, Indo-Australian archipelago and the western Pacific<ref name="Cyb"/>
|-
|''[[Laticauda]]''
|[[Josephus Nicolaus Laurenti|Laurenti]], 1768
|align="center"|5
|align="center"|0
|sea kraits
|Southeast Asian and Indo-Australian waters
|-
|''[[Leptomicrurus]]''
|[[Karl Patterson Schmidt|K.P. Schmidt]], 1937
|align="center"|4
|align="center"|2
|blackback coral snake
|Northern South America
|-
|''[[Loveridgelaps]]''
|McDowell, 1970
|align="center"|1
|align="center"|0
|Solomons small-eyed snake
|Solomon Islands
|-
|''[[Micropechis]]''
|[[George Albert Boulenger|Boulenger]], 1896
|align="center"|1
|align="center"|0
|New Guinea small-eyed snake
|New Guinea
|-
|''[[Micruroides]]''
|[[Karl Patterson Schmidt|K.P. Schmidt]], 1928
|align="center"|1
|align="center"|2
|Western coral snakes
|USA (Arizona, southwestern New Mexico), Mexico (Sonora, Sinaloa)
|-
|''[[Micrurus]]''
|[[Johann Georg Wagler|Wagler]], 1824
|align="center"|69
|align="center"|54
|coral snakes
|Southern North America, South America
|-
|''[[Naja]]''
|[[Josephus Nicolaus Laurenti|Laurenti]], 1768
|align="center"|23
|align="center"|3
|Kobra an kefçemar
|Africa, Asia
|-
|''[[Notechis]]''
|[[George Albert Boulenger|Boulenger]], 1896
|align="center"|2
|align="center"|0
|Marê piling
|Southern Australia, including many offshore islands
|-
|''[[Ogmodon]]''
|[[Wilhelm Peters|W. Peters]], 1864
|align="center"|1
|align="center"|0
|Marê Bola
|Fijî
|-
|''[[Ophiophagus]]''
|[[Albert Günther|Günther]], 1864
|align="center"|1
|align="center"|0
|Şahkobra
|Bangladesh, Myanmar, Cambodia, China, India, Andaman Islands, Indonesia, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, west Malaysia, the Philippines
|-
|''[[Oxyuranus]]''
|[[:fr:James Roy Kinghorn|Kinghorn]], 1923
|align="center"|3
|align="center"|2
|taipans
|Australia, New Guinea
|-
|''[[Parahydrophis]]''
|Burger & Natsuno, 1974
|align="center"|1
|align="center"|0
|Northern mangrove sea snake
|Northern Australia, southern New Guinea
|-
|''[[Paranaja]]''
|[[Arthur Loveridge|Loveridge]], 1944
|align="center"|1
|align="center"|2
|many-banded snakes
|West/central Democratic Republic of the Congo, Congo, Cameroon
|-
|''[[Parapistocalamus]]''
|[[:fr:Jean Roux|Roux]], 1934
|align="center"|1
|align="center"|0
|Hediger's snake
|Bougainville Island, Solomons
|-
|''[[Paroplocephalus]]''
|Keogh, Scott and Scanlon, 2000
|align="center"|1
|align="center"|0
|Lake Cronin snake
|Western Australia
|-
|''[[Pelamis platurus|Pelamis]]''
|[[François Marie Daudin|Daudin]], 1803
|align="center"|1
|align="center"|0
|yellow-bellied sea snake
|Indian and Pacific Oceans
|-
|''[[Praescutata viperina]]''
|[[Frank Wall|Wall]], 1921
|align="center"|1
|align="center"|0
|viperine sea snake
|Persian Gulf, Indian Ocean, South Chinese Sea northeast to coastal region of Fujian and Strait of Taiwan
|-
|''[[Pseudechis]]''
|[[Johann Georg Wagler|Wagler]], 1830
|align="center"|7
|align="center"|0
|Marê reş (û marê şahê qehweyî)
|Australia
|-
|''[[Pseudohaje]]''
|[[Albert Günther|Günther]], 1858
|align="center"|2
|align="center"|0
|Kobrayê daristanan
|Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Rwanda, Uganda, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Togo, Nigeria
|-
|''[[Pseudonaja]]''
|[[Albert Günther|Günther]], 1858
|align="center"|8
|align="center"|2
|Marên morê jehrawî
|Australia
|-
|''[[Rhinoplocephalus]]''
|[[Fritz Müller (doctor)|F. Müller]], 1885
|align="center"|6
|align="center"|0
|Marê biçûkçavê Awistralî
|Southern and eastern Australia, southern New Guinea
|-
|''[[Salomonelaps]]''
|McDowell, 1970
|align="center"|1
|align="center"|0
|Morîmarê Silêman
|Giravên Silêman
|-
|''[[Simoselaps]]''
|[[Giorgio Jan|Jan]], 1859
|align="center"|13
|align="center"|3
|Morîmarê Awistralî
|Mainland Australia
|-
|''[[Sinomicrurus (Calliophis) macclellandi]]''
|[[Joseph Bruno Slowinski|Slowinski]] et al., 2001
|align="center"|5
|align="center"|4
| Marê mîrar Asyayî
|India, Myanmar, Vietnam, China, Taiwan, Japan
|-
|''[[Suta (genus)|Suta]]''
|[[Eric Worrell|Worrell]], 1961
|align="center"|10
|align="center"|2
|Kumemar (û marê gerrandî)
|Awistraliya
|-
|''[[Thalassophis]]''
|P. Schmidt, 1852
|align="center"|1
|align="center"|0
|Marê avê nesayî
|South Chinese Sea (Malaysia, Gulf of Thailand), Indian Ocean (Sumatra, Java, Borneo)
|-
|''[[Toxicocalamus]]''
|[[George Albert Boulenger|Boulenger]], 1896
|align="center"|9
|align="center"|0
|Marê daristanê Gîniya Nû
|Gîniya Nû
|-
|''[[Tropidechis]]''
|[[Albert Günther|Günther]], 1863
|align="center"|2
|align="center"|0
|Marê hişkpile
|Rojavayê Awistraliya
|-
|''[[Vermicella]]''
|[[John Edward Gray|Gray]] ''In'' [[Albert Günther|Günther]], 1858
|align="center"|5
|align="center"|0
|bandy-bandies
|Awistraliya
|-
|''[[Walterinnesia]]''
|[[Fernand Lataste|Lataste]], 1887
|align="center"|2<ref>Nilson, G. & N. Rastegar-Pouyani (2007) Walterinnesia aegyptia Lataste, 1887 (Ophidia: Elapidae) and the status of Naja morgani Mocquard 1905. Russian Journal of Herpetology, 14: 7-14.</ref>
|align="center"|0
|Kobra reşê çolê
|Misr, Îsraîl, Libnan, Sûrî, Jordan, Îraq, Îran, Kuwait, Saûdî Erebistan, Tirkî <ref>Ugurtas, I. H., T. J. Papenfuss and N. L. Orlov. 2001. New record of Walterinnesia aegyptia Lataste, 1887 (Ophidia: Elapidae: Bungarinae) in Turkey. Russian Journal of Herpetology. 8(3):239-245.</ref>
|-
|}
 
==Çavkanî==
<ref name="ITIS">{{ITIS |id=174348 |taxon=Elapidae |accessdate=27 November 2006}}</ref>.
 
<ref name="ITIS"/>
==Herwiha binihêre==
*[[Mar]]
*[[Şahkobra]]
==Girêdanên derve==
Ser cinsên Elapidae
http://www.snakes-uncovered.com/Elapidae.html
 
{{kurt}}
6284

guhartin